Home  >  Special Features
Msc_Apr23 .
you can get e-magazine links on WhatsApp. Click here
Special Features
+ Font Resize -

Pyroptosis: A novel outline for cell death to combat cancer

Rashmi Wani & Dr. Reshma Tendulkar
Wednesday, April 26, 2023, 08:00 Hrs  [IST]

Pyroptosis is booming nowadays due to its close relationship with inborn immunity and disorders. Pyroptosis is an inflammatory method of cell death activated due to inflammasomes, which further leads to the breakdown of Gasdermin D (GSDMD) along with those activating inactive cytokines like Interleukin 18 and 1ß. The discovery of the gasdermin family is one of the prime causes responsible for the scope of pyroptosis research. As per the studies reported earlier, pyroptosis may affect cancer growth. Various tissues and genomic families can contain a changed relationship between pyroptosis and cancer growth. This article provides basic information about pyroptosis, the relation between pyroptosis and tumours, and the importance of pyroptosis in cancer treatment. Further, we have focused on pyroptosis as one of the leading strategies to treat cancer. Pyroptosis has also been highlighted as one of the most effective cancer treatment options.

In 1992, Sansonettiin et al. first used the word "pyroptosis" to describe the death of macrophages caused by Shigella flexneri. Scientists D'Souza et al. (2001) coined the word "pyroptosis" to refer to pro-inflammatory involuntary cell death (Greek: pyro-fever, ptosis-falling). Pyroptosis was once defined as the distinction between pyroptosis and apoptosis (involuntary cell death without inflammation). One of the types of programmed cell death (PCD), pyroptosis depends on the gasdermin protein family to exist by triggering an inflammatory response that frequently results in cell death from microbial infection. Inflammasome activation and the development of the cytokines like interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-18 serve as its guardians (IL-18). Gasdermin family proteins are the cause of pyroptosis.

According to the investigations, pyroptosis has been discovered to be more closely related to the occurrence and progression of cancer. Currently, tumours are proliferating all over the world and are responsible for countless annual deaths.

Two categories of cell deaths occur Programmed cell death and Accidental cell death (ACD). ACD is organically uninhibited or unexpected cell death for a long time and presents a lytic phase. In contrast, Pyroptosis has planned cell death. Pyroptosis occurs quickly as strong inflammatory response accompanies it.

Pyroptosis is intimately linked to specific brain, autoimmune, cardiovascular, and infectious disease issues in addition to the progression of cancer. Recent studies have revealed a connection between pyroptosis and cancer, which will undoubtedly aid in the clinical treatment of pyroptosis. Table No.1 explains various stages of pyroptosis development.

Characteristics of pyroptosis
Caspases 1/4/5/11 are activated, which is how pyroptosis functions. As a result of swelling organelles and cell membranes that developed vesicle bumps during this process, the cell's volume expanded. These oligomers were then formed at the N-terminus of gasdermin-D and moved to the plasma membrane.


Interestingly, pyroptosis' unique structural traits appear to be different from those of apoptosis. Apoptosis is thought to be the painless process of death, while it is thought that pyroptosis produces swelling and inflammation because it activates extracellular and intracellular stimuli such medications used to treat tumours, germs, viruses, and poisons. Examining the contrast features of necrosis reveals that it causes the plasma membrane to explodely burst as a result of the considerable cell enlargement. The cytoplasm contracts during pyroptosis as a result of plasma membrane leakage. Water entering through the pores caused cell enlargement and osmotic lysis, which led to the rupture of the plasma membrane and the simultaneous release of interleukin-18 and 1.  

Mode of action of pyroptosis at molecular level: Canonical pathway
Pyroptotic death is typically made easier by inflammasomes that emit cytokines like IL-1 and IL-18. Because to the resistance of microorganisms with host cells, multimolecular complexes such inflammasomes are triggered, which further facilitates the formation of an adaptive immune response. Inflammasomes have been linked to both microbial and non-microbial illnesses. The importance of inflammasomes and the cytokines they are associated with in oncogenesis, including proliferation, metastasis, and invasion, has been amply demonstrated.


Damaging effects of pyroptosis
According to the literature, administering chemotherapy may cause cells with high GSDME expression to suffer pyroptosis, whereas cells with low GSDME expression experience apoptosis. In contrast, it was discovered that GSDME expression was excessive in normal cells and significantly underexpressed in malignant cells. Pyroptosis also causes radiation considerable harm in addition to tumour therapy.

According to recent research, infectious and inflammatory heart disorders include lung infections, asthma, coronary artery diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases are the main causes of pyroptosis. Excessive pyroptosis can cause airway obstruction, airway inflammation or injury, cell destruction, and an inflammatory response that can seriously harm the respiratory system.

Role of pyroptosis in tumours
In malignancies like melanoma, breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancer, where overexpression of GSDME was discovered to be a tumour marker and downregulation of GSDME lead to a significant decrease in the cancer cells, pyroptosis has been shown to play a role in tumour growth. Metformin increases apoptosis and slows the development of uterine serous carcinoma (USC) in endometrial cancer, according to a new study by Sarfstein et al. Acute myeloid leukaemia patients' blood and bone marrow biopsies were analysed as part of the researchers' elegant research, which provides new insight into the several paths by which pyroptosis might be induced in response to chemotherapy.

Pyroptosis is gradually being explained as a planned and inflammatory pattern of cell death through fresh studies. Several issues, such as those governing pyroptosis and the roles played by the gasdermin family in pyroptosis, have yet to be solved. Research is being done to enhance treatment efficacy using cell pyroptosis made possible by nanomedicine. To understand the molecular process and therapy diagnosis of pyroptosis, more focused investigations are necessary. According to study, a variety of medications can cause pyroptosis in animals while also preventing the spread of cancer.

(Authors are affiliated to Vivekanand Education Society’s College of Pharmacy, Mumbai, Maharashtra)


Post Your commentsPOST YOUR COMMENT
* Name :     
* Email :    
  Website :  
Pharma live expo
Close Open
Copyright © 2023 Saffron Media Pvt. Ltd |